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# The home-server project produces a multi-purpose setup using Ansible.
# Copyright © 2018 Y. Gablin, under the GPL-3.0-or-later license.
# Full licensing information in the LICENSE file, or gnu.org/licences/gpl-3.0.txt if the file is missing.
= Automated configuration of a home-server
== Introduction
This project contains a collection of https://docs.ansible.com/[Ansible] rules, that:
* both automate and document the setup of a home-server, as secure as possible;
* should greatly ease the quick setup of a replacement server, in case the main one has a hardware failure (this is for a single machine, not a datacenter).
Let it be clear, that the target is a *home*-server, not an entreprise solution, not a personal VM “in the Cloud”, but a real hardware machine plugged at home to the xDSL or fiber router, that links you to an ISP.
Besides, this project should not be used without *solid knowledge of Linux and its command-line, as well as https://git-scm.com/[Git]*!
Oh! And I decided to let go of Debian, and use https://www.archlinux.org/[Archlinux] instead.
Someone once questionned me about such a choice for a server; here was my answer:
[quote, Yves, https://linuxfr.org/news/pyruse-1-0-pour-remplacer-fail2ban-et-autres-scruteurs-de-journaux-sur-un-gnu-linux-moderne#comment-1729871]
In practice, Archlinux is working pretty well on a server. Before that, I was using Debian.
My experience (for a server) is such:
* `` There is almost always something to handle after software upgrades ⇒ I never let these upgrades run automatically unsupervised.
* `+` On the other hand, the solutions to the problems that arise are always simple, and I know that I can handle them.
* `+` Moreover, the software is always up-to-date, which makes exploring new use-cases so much easier!
* `+` Finally, it is trivial to package new software, as I did with https://yalis.fr/git/yves/pyruse/[Pyruse]; this allows me to avoid `./configure && make install` steps in my Ansible playbook.
* `+` Updates usually just happen, almost unnoticed.
* `` But when there _is_ a failure, I have to delve into Debians idiosyncrasies, and this is not always easy…
* `+` Security updates are done in a serious way, which compensates for the age of the packets.
* `` But as time passes, some software becomes complicated, or even impossible in some cases, to test.
Everything is in the personal balance that suits you.
I am perfectly comfortable with the command line, and Archlinux is better suited to my goals.
But one should not be dogmatic: other Linux distributions may be better suited to other situations.
== What can the server do?
Here is what is currently available (I will not repeat “automated” every time, since everything is done with Ansible):
* a container acting as a https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DMZ_(computing)[DMZ], which is the only part of the server, that the Internet can reach;
* firewalls (one for the DMZ, the other for the backend server);
* as much https://freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/[systemd] as possible (almost all logs, the DMZ, network, ntp, dns…);
* systemd journals scrutation with automatic reporting of urgent situations, and a daily report;
* `/etc` changes followed in Git, with a separation between the upstream state (branch `master`) and the everyday state (branch `run`);
* certificate renewal using the https://letsencrypt.org/how-it-works/[ACME protocol], and certificate deployment to the locations where the software needs it;
* software upgrades;
* https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_DNS[dynamic DNS] handling (remember, this is a _home_ server, where a fixed IPv4 address is not a given);
* centralized handling of users in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lightweight_Directory_Access_Protocol[LDAP];
* a web portal and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_sign-on[SSO], to reach the different web services for registered users;
* a web https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_interface[UI] for handling LDAP entries and mail aliases (also in LDAP);
* mail handling, with SMTP and IMAP;
* a PostgreSQL database;
* an SSH server, hidden with https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_knocking[port-knocking];
* a web server configured to allow additional contents for clients who port-knocked properly;
* a https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blog[blog];
* a web UI for the Git projects hosted on the server;
* a “personal cloud”, for files (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WebDAV[WebDAV]), contacts (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CardDAV[CardDAV]), and calendars (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CalDAV[CalDAV]), all (and more!) freely synchronizable with an https://www.fairphone.com/en/[Android smartphone];
* automatic mounting of the “personal cloud” files when logging in on the server;
* an https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_File_System[NFS] server;
* an https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XMPP[XMPP] server;
* a print server;
* a scan server;
* a remote-controlled media server (requires audio and video outputs);
* a https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Living_Network_Alliance[DLNA]/uPNP server;
* a private https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pastebin[pastebin]-like service;
* a https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BitTorrent[BitTorrent] server;
* a https://github.com/yarrick/iodine[DNS tunnel];
* a SSH-over-link:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_Layer_Security[TLS] tunnel;
* https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bonjour_(software)[Bonjour]-SD (Service-Discovery);
* a web UI for bookmarks (work in progress…);
* a web XMPP client (work in progress…).
== Current status
This configuration has led to a working server, which has been up and running for more than a year.
* the Ansible rules written here still have rough edges;
* this is a quick (one might say hasty) publishing of the current Ansible rules, and theyre in need of way more documentation…
This project is also a way for me to _learn_ Ansible, and Id be happy to know if I misused Ansible somewhere `:-)`
== Requirements
A domain name is needed.
It is expected that DNS entries are handled by an external service, because the home-server does not do that itself.
For example, https://dns.he.net/[Hurricane Electric] can be used. +
For testing purposes, a free temporary domain may be used, for example at https://freedns.afraid.org/[Free DNS].
At home, the server needs to be connected to a router that has these properties:
* allows machines on the LAN to have a fixed IP: the server, and also all terminals (PC, Android…) that shall be trusted;
* has a “DMZ mode” (ie. route all incoming Internet traffic —with possible exceptions— to a chosen IP on the LAN), or at least port-by-port NAT;
* is a gateway to the Internet for LAN machines;
* allows all incoming and outgoing traffic (most notably SMTP, which tends to be blocked by default);
The server itself should have at least 2GB of RAM, and at least 2 CPU cores (for better multitasking).
On my https://www.udoo.org/udoo-x86/[Basic Udoo X86] (2GB RAM and 4× https://ark.intel.com/fr/products/92124/Intel-Atom-x5-E8000-Processor-2M-Cache-up-to-2_00-GHz[x5-E8000]@1.04GHz CPU), with all of the above services running, I get good performance, 60% RAM used, and an average system load of 8%, which is rather good!
Last but not least, the machine that will run the Ansible playbook should have a version of Ansible greater than 2.2:
* module `include_role` runs dynamically (available since version 2.4);
* modules `ini_file`, `lineinfile`, `mount`, and `replace` use the `path` parameter (available since version 2.3);
* modules `ldap_attr` and `ldap_entry` are used (available since version 2.3);
* module `lineinfile` uses the `firstmatch` parameter (available since version 2.5);
* module `user` uses the `create_home` parameter (available since version 2.5).
Also, this machine must have a static IP address on the LAN, because only this computer will be allowed to run Ansible commands on the server, using the dedicated SSH key.
== Usage
First, the server must be link:bootstrap.adoc[prepared, so that Ansible can connect and run the rules].
Then the rules are run by launching this command at the root of the project:
$ ansible-playbook -i production site.yml
# The home-server project produces a multi-purpose setup using Ansible.
# Copyright © 2018 Y. Gablin, under the GPL-3.0-or-later license.
# Full licensing information in the LICENSE file, or gnu.org/licences/gpl-3.0.txt if the file is missing.

bootstrap.adoc Normal file
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# The home-server project produces a multi-purpose setup using Ansible.
# Copyright © 2018 Y. Gablin, under the GPL-3.0-or-later license.
# Full licensing information in the LICENSE file, or gnu.org/licences/gpl-3.0.txt if the file is missing.
:keymap: fr-bepo
:front-name: dmz
:back-name: home
:net-bits: 24
:your-uid: me
:sys-disk: /dev/mmcblk0
:sys-esp: /dev/mmcblk0p1
:sys-pv: /dev/mmcblk0p2
:sys-vg: Sys
:data-vg: Data
:appdata-lv: AppData
:userdata-lv: UserData
:bt-storage-name: p2p
:bt-storage-todo: iso.torrent
:bt-storage-doing: .iso.wip
:bt-storage-done: iso
:prosody-db: prosody
:prosody-db-user: prosody
:nextcloud-db: nextcloud
:nextcloud-db-user: nextcloud
:nextcloud-root: /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud
:nextcloud-user: cloud
= Bootstrap of the home-server
TIP: Modifiy this documents header variables and it will then reflect your own preferences.
https://addons.mozilla.org/fr/firefox/addon/asciidoctorjs-live-preview/[View the result in Firefox].
== Purpose
The server is entirely configured by https://docs.ansible.com/[Ansible].
Thus, what this document is about should be entirely done with Ansible.
However, Ansible can only reach and control the server if the server has some basic software installed (namely, SSH and Python), and has its network interface correctly configured.
This is a chicken-and-egg problem, which is solved by manually bootstraping the server.
== Archlinux standard installation
Once the Archlinux installation media (USB in my case) is inserted and booted (in EFI mode), the https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Installation_guide[official documentation] basically comes down to this (to be adapted for your actual preferences):
Basic configuration and partioning::
* `{sys-disk}` is the small integrated storage area, where the system gets installed.
* The “{data-vg}” LVM-VG is a (set of) storage device(s) (SATA, eSATA, or USB3) with lots of extra space (for example on `/dev/sdb`).
* Each application that manages state data gets its own mount points inside a BTRFS “{appdata-lv}” volume.
* User data is stored in a BTRFS “{userdata-lv}” volume.
root@archiso ~ # export LVM=/dev/mapper
root@archiso ~ # export DMZ=/mnt/var/lib/machines/{front-name}
root@archiso ~ # export APPDATA=/mnt/mnt/AppData
root@archiso ~ # export USERDATA=/mnt/mnt/UserData
root@archiso ~ # loadkeys {keymap}
root@archiso ~ # ping -c 1 archlinux.org
1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
root@archiso ~ # timedatectl set-ntp true
root@archiso ~ # fdisk {sys-disk}
Command (m for help): g
Created a new GPT disklabel…
Command (m for help): n
Partition number (1-128, default 1):
First sector (…):
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (…): +128M
Created a new partition 1…
Command (m for help): t
Selected partition 1
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 1
Changed type of partition 'Linux filesystem' to 'EFI System'.
Command (m for help): n
Partition number (2-128, default 2):
First sector (…):
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (…):
Created a new partition 2…
Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1,2, default 2):
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 31
Changed type of partition 'Linux filesystem' to 'Linux LVM'.
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered.
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
root@archiso ~ # mkfs.vfat -n ESP {sys-esp}
root@archiso ~ # pvcreate {sys-pv}
root@archiso ~ # vgcreate {sys-vg} {sys-pv}
root@archiso ~ # lvcreate -L 5G -n Root {sys-vg}
root@archiso ~ # lvcreate -L 2G -n Cont {sys-vg}
root@archiso ~ # mkfs.ext4 $LVM/{sys-vg}-Root
root@archiso ~ # mkfs.btrfs --mixed --label Cont $LVM/{sys-vg}-Cont
root@archiso ~ # lvcreate -L 10G -n RootVar {data-vg}
root@archiso ~ # mkfs.ext4 $LVM/{data-vg}-RootVar
root@archiso ~ # lvcreate -L 1G -n ContVar {data-vg}
root@archiso ~ # mkfs.ext4 $LVM/{data-vg}-ContVar
root@archiso ~ # lvcreate -L 100G -n {appdata-lv} {data-vg}
root@archiso ~ # mkfs.btrfs --mixed --label {appdata-lv} $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv}
root@archiso ~ # lvcreate -L 700G -n {userdata-lv} {data-vg}
root@archiso ~ # mkfs.btrfs --mixed --label {userdata-lv} $LVM/{data-vg}-{userdata-lv}
root@archiso ~ # lvcreate -L 1G -n Home {data-vg}
root@archiso ~ # mkfs.ext4 $LVM/{data-vg}-Home
Host and guest mounting::
* The hardware host holds the sensitive data, and is not reachable from the Internet.
* the guest container is the DMZ and holds directly accessible Internet services.
root@archiso ~ # mount $LVM/{sys-vg}-Root /mnt
root@archiso ~ # mkdir -p /mnt/{boot,home,var} $APPDATA $USERDATA
root@archiso ~ # mount LABEL=ESP /mnt/boot
root@archiso ~ # mount $LVM/{data-vg}-Home /mnt/home
root@archiso ~ # mount $LVM/{data-vg}-RootVar /mnt/var
root@archiso ~ # mount $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} $APPDATA
root@archiso ~ # mkdir -p /mnt/var/cache/{minidlna,pacman/pkg}
root@archiso ~ # mkdir -p \
> /mnt/var/lib/{acme,dovecot,gitea,kodi,machines,nextcloud,openldap,postgres}
root@archiso ~ # mkdir -p /mnt/var/spool/mail
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/acme.lib
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/acme.srv
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/ddclient.cache
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/dovecot.lib
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/gitea.lib
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/kodi.lib
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/mail.spool
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/minidlna.cache
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/movim.cache
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/movim.lib
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/nextcloud.lib
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/nginx.log
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/openldap.lib
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/pacman_pkg.cache
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/postgres.lib
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/prosody.lib
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/transmission.lib
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $APPDATA/webapps.srv
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=acme.lib,compress=lzo \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} /mnt/var/lib/acme
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=dovecot.lib,compress=lzo \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} /mnt/var/lib/dovecot
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=gitea.lib,nodatacow \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} /mnt/var/lib/gitea
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=kodi.lib,compress=lzo \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} /mnt/var/lib/kodi
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=mail.spool,compress=lzo,nodatacow \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} /mnt/var/spool/mail
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=minidlna.cache,nodatacow \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} /mnt/var/cache/minidlna
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=nextcloud.lib,compress=lzo \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} /mnt/var/lib/nextcloud
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=openldap.lib,nodatacow \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} /mnt/var/lib/openldap
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=pacman_pkg.cache,nodatacow \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} /mnt/var/cache/pacman/pkg
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=postgres.lib,nodatacow \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} /mnt/var/lib/postgres
root@archiso ~ # mount $LVM/{sys-vg}-Cont /mnt/var/lib/machines
root@archiso ~ # btrfs subvolume create $DMZ
root@archiso ~ # mkdir -p $DMZ/var
root@archiso ~ # mount $LVM/{data-vg}-ContVar $DMZ/var
root@archiso ~ # mkdir -p $DMZ/srv/{acme,webapps}
root@archiso ~ # mkdir -p $DMZ/var/cache/{ddclient,movim}
root@archiso ~ # mkdir -p $DMZ/var/lib/{prosody,transmission}
root@archiso ~ # mkdir -p $DMZ/var/log/nginx
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=acme.srv,nodatacow \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} $DMZ/srv/acme
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=ddclient.cache,compress=lzo \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} $DMZ/var/cache/ddclient
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=movim.cache \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} $DMZ/var/cache/movim
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=movim.lib,compress=lzo \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} $DMZ/var/lib/movim
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=nginx.log,compress=lzo,nodatacow \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} $DMZ/var/log/nginx
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=prosody.lib,nodatacow \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} $DMZ/var/lib/prosody
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=transmission.lib,nodatacow \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} $DMZ/var/lib/transmission
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol=webapps.srv,compress=lzo \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{appdata-lv} $DMZ/srv/webapps
root@archiso ~ # mkdir $DMZ/var/lib/transmission/{Todo,Doing,Done}
root@archiso ~ # mount -o nodatacow $LVM/{data-vg}-{userdata-lv} $USERDATA
root@archiso ~ # mkdir -p $USERDATA/{bt-storage-name}
root@archiso ~ # for d in {bt-storage-todo} {bt-storage-doing} {bt-storage-done}; do
> btrfs subvolume create $USERDATA/{bt-storage-name}/$d
> done
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol={bt-storage-name}/{bt-storage-todo},nodatacow \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{userdata-lv} $DMZ/var/lib/transmission/Todo
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol={bt-storage-name}/{bt-storage-doing},nodatacow \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{userdata-lv} $DMZ/var/lib/transmission/Doing
root@archiso ~ # mount \
> -o subvol={bt-storage-name}/{bt-storage-done},nodatacow \
> $LVM/{data-vg}-{userdata-lv} $DMZ/var/lib/transmission/Done
Archlinux installation::
* When this is done, be sure to check that `/mnt/etc/fstab` perfectly matches the wanted result (the above mount points).
root@archiso ~ # pacstrap /mnt base arch-install-scripts intel-ucode \
> openssh python2 etckeeper git lvm2 btrfs-progs rsync
root@archiso ~ # genfstab -L /mnt >>/mnt/etc/fstab
Archlinux initial configuration::
* The basic files for the host must roughly match the final configuration, enough to let Ansible control the right host on the right IP without error.
* The values used here *must* match those in link:group_vars/all[].
root@archiso ~ # arch-chroot /mnt
[root@archiso /]# echo {back-name} >/etc/hostname
[root@archiso /]# cat >/etc/systemd/network/bridge.netdev <<-"THEEND"
> [NetDev]
> Name=wire
> Kind=bridge
[root@archiso /]# cat >/etc/systemd/network/bridge.network <<-"THEEND"
> [Match]
> Name=wire
> [Network]
> IPForward=yes
> Address={back-ip}/{net-bits}
> Gateway={net-gateway}
[root@archiso /]# cat >/etc/systemd/network/wired.network <<-"THEEND"
> [Match]
> Name=en*
> [Network]
> Bridge=wire
[root@archiso /]# systemctl enable systemd-networkd.service
[root@archiso /]# sed -i '/prohibit-password/s/.*/PermitRootLogin yes/' \
> /etc/ssh/sshd_config
[root@archiso /]# mkdir ~root/.ssh
[root@archiso /]# chmod 700 ~root/.ssh
[root@archiso /]# scp {your-uid}@{pc-ip}:.ssh/id_ansible.pub \
> ~root/.ssh/authorized_keys
[root@archiso /]# chmod 600 ~root/.ssh/authorized_keys
[root@archiso /]# systemctl enable sshd.service
[root@archiso /]# sed -i '/^HOOKS=/s/block filesystems/block lvm2 filesystems/' \
> /etc/mkinitcpio.conf
[root@archiso /]# mkinitcpio -p linux
[root@archiso /]# passwd
passwd: password updated successfully
[root@archiso /]# bootctl --path=/boot install
[root@archiso /]# cat >/boot/loader/entries/arch.conf <<-THEEND
> title Arch Linux
> linux /vmlinuz-linux
> initrd /intel-ucode.img
> initrd /initramfs-linux.img
> options root=$LVM/{sys-vg}-Root rw
[root@archiso /]# cat >/boot/loader/loader.conf <<-"THEEND"
> default arch
> editor 0
[root@archiso /]# printf '%s, %s\n' \
> 'ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="usb"' \
> 'TEST=="power/control", ATTR{power/control}="off"' \
> >/etc/udev/rules.d/50-usb_power_save.rules
[root@archiso /]# exit
root@archiso ~ # systemctl reboot
This last command about USB and power control disables power saving for USB.
This line is only interesting if the main data drive is connected with USB.
In theory, at this stage, the machine is ready to be controlled by Ansible.
However, Ansible fails at first, because for some reason, `pacstrap` in the “front” Ansible role fails to initialize the DMZ if the location already contains mount points, so:
. I had to temporarily unmount everything under `/var/lib/machines/{front-name}`, and delete the `/var/lib/machines/{front-name}/usr` sub-diretory.
. I also temporarily commented out the whole front-half of `site.xml`, as well as the “front-run” role of the back part.
. Then I ran Ansible again.
. When the DMZ was correctly initialized, I renamed `/var/lib/machines/{front-name}/var` to `/var/lib/machines/{front-name}/var.new`.
. Then I created a new `/var/lib/machines/{front-name}/var`, inside of which I mounted all the above DMZ-specific mount points again.
. In the `/var/lib/machines/{front-name}/` directory, I ran `rsync -av var.new/ var/`.
. After that, I could remove the `/var.new` directory (see below), restore `site.yml` to its original state, and start Ansible once again.
When I wanted to delete the DMZs `var.new` directory as root, I was denied the permission!
This is because `pacstrap` created the DMZs own `var/lib/machines` as a btrfs subvolume, which can only be deleted with the `btrfs subvolume delete var.new/lib/machines` command (`var.new` because of the renaming above).
Then removing `var.new` worked.
== Post-installation tasks
You may want to restore some data from a former installation.
This section contains some examples of data restoration.
NOTE: Most values and paths here are examples, and shall be adapted.
=== Dotclear
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} stop haproxy.service
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} stop nginx.service
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} stop php-fpm.service
[root@{back-name} ~]# sudo -u postgres pg_restore -c -C -F c -d postgres \
> </backup/dotclear.cdump
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} start php-fpm.service
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} start nginx.service
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} start haproxy.service
=== Prosody
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} stop haproxy.service
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} stop nginx.service
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} stop prosody.service
[root@{back-name} ~]# sudo -u postgres pg_restore -c -C -F c -d postgres \
> </backup/prosody.cdump
[root@{back-name} ~]# su - postgres
[postgres@{back-name} ~]$ psql
postgres=# ALTER DATABASE {prosody-db} OWNER TO {prosody-db-user};
postgres=# \c {prosody-db}
{prosody-db}=# ALTER TABLE prosody OWNER TO {prosody-db-user};
{prosody-db}=# \q
[postgres@{back-name} ~]$ exit
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} start prosody.service
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} start nginx.service
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} start haproxy.service
=== Nextcloud
There is a twist here…
My former installation actually was ownCloud, _not_ Nextcloud.
But knowing that I would use Nextcloud from then on, before doing the backup I upgraded my ownCloud installation to the corresponding compatible Nextcloud version (version ``). +
The upgrade process broke my ownCloud… Not a big deal, since I only needed the backup of the data, to be restored in a clean Nextcloud installation on the new server.
But I dont remember if, on the new server, I restored the backup of the migrated database, or the backup of the ownCloud database…
Besides, my old ownCloud did _not_ use LDAP, instead relying on its internal database of users.
Unfortunately, there is no way to convert internal users (with their contacts, calendars, and so on) into LDAP users.
So I did it the programmers way, by studying the data model, and running SQL requests.
These are described below.
At the time of the data restoration, the current Nextcloud release (installed on the server) was version `12.…`.
Stop Nextcloud and restore the data::
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} stop haproxy.service
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} stop nginx.service
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl stop nextcloud-maintenance.timer
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl stop uwsgi@nextcloud.socket
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl stop uwsgi@nextcloud.service
[root@{back-name} ~]# sudo -u postgres pg_restore -c -C -F c -d postgres \
> </backup/owncloud10.cdump
[root@{back-name} ~]# sed -i "s/'version' => '12.*'/'version' => ''/" \
> /etc/webapps/nextcloud/config/config.php
[root@{back-name} ~]# cd {nextcloud-root}
[root@{back-name} nextcloud]# sudo -u {nextcloud-user} \
> /usr/bin/env NEXTCLOUD_CONFIG_DIR=/etc/webapps/nextcloud/config \
> /usr/bin/php occ upgrade
[root@{back-name} nextcloud]# cd /etc
[root@{back-name} etc]# git reset --hard
[root@{back-name} etc]# etckeeper init
Migrate users to LDAP (they keep the same name)::
* connect to the database:
[root@{back-name} etc]# su - postgres
[postgres@{back-name} ~]$ psql
postgres=# ALTER DATABASE {nextcloud-db} OWNER TO {nextcloud-db-user};
postgres=# \c {nextcloud-db}
* browse a table (eg. `addressbooks`) to note the number associated to each user (eg. “`{your-uid}`” associated to number “`6266`”);
* migrate user `{your-uid}` (repeat for each user): the idea is to delete most data, considering that it is synced somewhere and it can be restored by resynchronizing:
{nextcloud-db}=# delete from oc_accounts where uid='{your-uid}';
{nextcloud-db}=# delete from oc_addressbooks where principaluri='principals/users/{your-uid}_6266';
{nextcloud-db}=# delete from oc_calendars where principaluri='principals/users/{your-uid}_6266';
{nextcloud-db}=# delete from oc_credentials;
{nextcloud-db}=# delete from oc_filecache where name='{your-uid}_6266';
{nextcloud-db}=# delete from oc_jobs where argument='{"uid":"{your-uid}_6266"}';
{nextcloud-db}=# delete from oc_mounts where user_id like '%{your-uid}_6266%';
{nextcloud-db}=# delete from oc_preferences where userid='{your-uid}_6266';
{nextcloud-db}=# delete from oc_storages where id='home::{your-uid}_6266';
{nextcloud-db}=# delete from oc_users where uid='{your-uid}';
{nextcloud-db}=# update oc_ldap_user_mapping set owncloud_name='{your-uid}' where owncloud_name='{your-uid}_6266';
{nextcloud-db}=# commit;
{nextcloud-db}=# \q
Restart Nextcloud::
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl start uwsgi@nextcloud.socket
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl start nextcloud-maintenance.timer
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} start nginx.service
[root@{back-name} ~]# systemctl -M {front-name} start haproxy.service
=== Restore emails
I was formerly using BincIMAP, and then Courier-IMAP, and I also ran Dovecot once, on a backup server, when my main servers power supply burnt.
As a consequence, the Maildirs were polluted with dot-files from various origins.
I decided to do a clean import, especially since I configured Dovecot in a way that makes it more performant, with the constraint that it must have exclusive access to the mail storage.
[root@{back-name} ~]# find /backup/user-Maildirs -depth \
> \( -iname '*binc*' -o -iname '*courier*' -o -iname '*dovecot*' \) \
> -exec rm -rf {} \;
[root@{back-name} ~]# for u in $(ls /backup/user-Maildirs); do
> chown -R $u /backup/user-Maildirs/$u
> doveadm import -s -u $u maildir:/backup/user-Maildirs/$u/Maildir/ '' ALL
> done
# The home-server project produces a multi-purpose setup using Ansible.
# Copyright © 2018 Y. Gablin, under the GPL-3.0-or-later license.
# Full licensing information in the LICENSE file, or gnu.org/licences/gpl-3.0.txt if the file is missing.

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# The home-server project produces a multi-purpose setup using Ansible.
# Copyright © 2018 Y. Gablin, under the GPL-3.0-or-later license.
# Full licensing information in the LICENSE file, or gnu.org/licences/gpl-3.0.txt if the file is missing.
# Short personal nickname that will be mostly used as part of filenames under /etc.
nickname: personal
# Hostname and IPv4 address of the DMZ.
DMZ: dmz
# Hostname and IPv4 address of the back-end server (with all the data).
SafeZone: home
# Domain names that the certificate should cover.
acme_domains: 'example.org www.example.org pubsub.example.org'
# Public key that Ansible will use to manage the server, and IP address of the controller PC.
# The public key (`….pub` file) is generated as the result of running `ssh-keygen -t ed25519`.
ansible_authorized_key: 'ssh-ed25519 AAAA0000bbbb1111CCCC2222dddd3333EEEE4444ffff5555GGGG6666hhhh7777IIII me@my-pc'
# System user that will build packages from AUR (https://aur.archlinux.org/).
aur_user: git
# Just leave this with an empty-string value.
chroot: ''
# https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Keyboard_configuration_in_console
default_keymap: en
# https://jlk.fjfi.cvut.cz/arch/manpages/man/papersize.5
default_papersize: a4
# LDAP (real) user that will have admin rights in Dotclear (the blog).
dotclear_admin_user: me
# Name of the Dotclear database in PostgreSQL.
dotclear_db: dotclear
# PostgreSQL user who owns the Dotclear database.
dotclear_db_user: dotclear
# Password for the PostgreSQL user who owns the Dotclear database.
dotclear_db_password: dotclear
# Dotclear encrypts sensitive data with a master key, that is set here (random string).
dotclear_master_key: 0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
# Location where Dotclear is installed, which *must* end with “/dotclear”
dotclear_root: /srv/webapps/dotclear
# The default locale (https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Locale).
locales_default: 'en_US.UTF-8'
# All installed locales on the server.
locales_enabled: 'en_US.UTF-8 fr_FR.UTF-8 fr_FR@euro'
# Enable DNSSEC in systemd-resolved (“yes” or “no”, as a character string); experimental!
dns_sec: 'no'
# DNS servers to use on the server, for example:
# FDN-1 (v4) FDN-2 (v4) FDN-1 (v6) FDN-2 (v6) OpenNIC-1 OpenNIC-2 Google
dns_hosts: ' 2001:910:800::12 2001:910:800::40'
# Nearest NTP servers (https://www.ntppool.org/).
ntp_hosts: '0.uk.pool.ntp.org 1.uk.pool.ntp.org 2.uk.pool.ntp.org 3.uk.pool.ntp.org'
# IP addresses that are allowed to browse DLNA/uPNP contents, even though they are not trusted.
# This is a space-separated list of networks (IP/bits).
# A typical example would be a living-room BD player or TV, which includes a DLNA client.
# Number of minutes allowed between two consecutive ports of the port-knocking sequence.
fw_knock_timeout_min: 2
# Port-knocking sequence. A port may appear multiple times, but not next to each-other.
fw_portknock_seq: 1 22 333 4444 333 22 1
# The email address associated to root, for commits in the git repository that stores changes to /etc.
git_contact_email: hostmaster@example.org
# Name of the Gitea (web UI for Git) database in PostgreSQL.
gitea_db: gitea
# PostgreSQL user who owns the Gitea database.
gitea_db_user: gitea
# Password for the PostgreSQL user who owns the Gitea database.
gitea_db_password: gitea
# Disable creation of organisations in Gitea (“true” or “false”, as a character string).
gitea_disable_org_creation: 'true'
# Disable self-registration in Gitea (“true” or “false”, as a character string).
gitea_disable_registration: 'false'
# Enable email notifications in Gitea (“true” or “false”, as a character string).
gitea_enable_notify_email: 'true'
# Maximum size of HTTP and PHP uploads.
http_max_upload: 10000M
# Document-root of the HTTP server.
http_root: /srv/http
# URL prefix of Dotclear (blog).
http_pfx_dotclear: /blog
# URL prefix of Gitea (web UI for Git).
http_pfx_gitea: /git
# URL prefix of LDAP-Account-Manager (web UI for LDAP).
http_pfx_lam: /account
# URL prefix of Movim (XMPP web client).
http_pfx_movim: /social
# URL prefix of Nextcloud (self-hosted “cloud”).
http_pfx_nextcloud: /cloud
# URL prefix of PrivateBin (self-hosted “pastebin”).
http_pfx_privatebin: /paste
# URL prefix of Prosody-generated URL (file uploads, BOSH, websockets…).
http_pfx_prosody: /xmpp-
# URL prefix of SSOwat (SSO and web portal).
http_pfx_ssowat: /start
# URL prefix of Transmission (web UI for BitTorrent).
http_pfx_transmission: /torrent
# URL prefix of Wallabag (social sharing of bookmarks).
http_pfx_wallabag: /bookmarks
# Subdomain-name that will serve DNS packets for Iodine (DNS tunnel). Choose it short!
iodine_domain: dt.example.org
# Network associated with the DNS tunnel (IP address of the server on this network, “/”, bits for the network-mask).
iodine_net: ''
# Password of the DNS tunnel.
iodine_password: '_t_r___e@6358'
# Location of Kodi state data (not the media contents).
kodi_data: /var/lib/kodi
# System user that will run Kodi.
kodi_user: kodi
# Master password, needed to change LDAP-Account-Manager settings.
lam_master_password: lam
# Password policy for LDAP-Account-Manager (https://www.ldap-account-manager.org/static/doc/manual-onePage/#idm695).
# “-1” means “all”.
lam_checkedRulesCount: -1
lam_passwordMinClasses: 3
lam_passwordMinLength: 10
lam_passwordMinLower: 0
lam_passwordMinNumeric: 0
lam_passwordMinSymbol: 1
lam_passwordMinUpper: 0
lam_passwordMustNotContain3Chars: 'true'
lam_passwordMustNotContainUser: 'true'
# Title for LDAP-Account-Manager in the SSOwat portal.
lam_sso_title: Directory
# Additional ACL for LDAP.
# This is typically used to give extra powers to users, for example regarding aliases management.
ldap_extra_acl: |
access to dn.subtree="ou=Aliases,dc=example,dc=org"
by dn.base="uid=me,ou=Users,dc=example,dc=org" write
by self read
by * read
# Organization-name for this home-server LDAP directory.
ldap_o_name: 'Home'
# Root of the LDAP directory. Usually the domain-name with commas instead of dots, and “dc=” in front of each level.
ldap_root: dc=example,dc=org
# Password of the root user (administrator) in OpenLDAP.
ldap_rootpw: 'OE104995à6&o_zKR4'
# Same password, as expected by OpenLDAP.
# See https://gist.github.com/rca/7217540 (python2) or https://www.openldap.org/faq/data/cache/347.html.
ldap_rootpw_sha: '{SSHA}Raa3TlvDPZTjdM44nKZQt+hDvQRvaMDC'
# Custom system groups and memberships, declared in LDAP.
# This is the right place to declare a group in which to put all real and system users, who will be allowed to read media contents.
ldap_system_groups: '[
{"cn": "registered", "gidNumber": 1200}
{"cn": "media", "gidNumber": 1201}
ldap_system_group_members: '[
{"group": "media", "member": "me"},
{"group": "media", "member": "cloud"},
{"group": "media", "member": "kodi"}
# Real users (ie. with a Linux account on the server) to declare in LDAP.
# Each user in the JSON list contains:
# — uidNumber: a unique user ID, which must be ≥1000;
# — gidNumber: a group ID, which should be a “gidNumber” of ldap_system_groups;
# — uid: the login name, usually short, without spaces, and all lowercase;
# — cn: the users firstname;
# — sn: the users surname;
# — password: the users password upon creation, in the same format as ldap_rootpw_sha (“change_me” in the example).
# These settings are only read when creating the users in LDAP.
ldap_system_users: '[
{"uidNumber": 1000, "gidNumber": 1200, "uid": "you", "cn": "Yule-Offa", "sn": "Udel", "password": "{SSHA}393aKNBzihkeHWXalkw/vpdy3dYHoh5L"},
{"uidNumber": 1001, "gidNumber": 1200, "uid": "me", "cn": "Mae", "sn": "Ellen", "password": "{SSHA}393aKNBzihkeHWXalkw/vpdy3dYHoh5L"}
# Guest users (they can use the provided software, but do not have a Linux account).
# The fields are the same as above, minus the Linux UID and GID numbers.
# These settings are only read when creating the users in LDAP.
ldap_virtual_users: '[
{"uid": "she", "cn": "Her", "sn": "…", "password": "{SSHA}393aKNBzihkeHWXalkw/vpdy3dYHoh5L"},
{"uid": "he", "cn": "Him", "sn": "…", "password": "{SSHA}393aKNBzihkeHWXalkw/vpdy3dYHoh5L"}
# Linux UID and GID to use for users who do not have their own.
# 65534 = nobody
ldap_virtual_user_uid: 65534
ldap_virtual_user_gid: 65534
# LDAP attributes to assign to users, either Linux users or guests.
# Each entry in the list contains:
# — uid: the login name of the user to modify;
# — attr: the LDAP attribute to set;
# — value: the value to store in the chosen attribute.
# These settings are enforced at each run. Examples:
# — gecos: the full name that typically appears on the login screen;
# — http://directory.fedoraproject.org/docs/389ds/design/shadow-account-support.html.
ldap_users_attrs: '[
{"uid": "you", "attr": "gecos", "value": "Y-O. Udel"},
{"uid": "you", "attr": "shadowLastChange", "value": "16000"},
{"uid": "you", "attr": "shadowMax", "value": "99999"},
{"uid": "you", "attr": "shadowWarning", "value": "7"},
{"uid": "me", "attr": "gecos", "value": "M. Ellen"},
{"uid": "me", "attr": "shadowLastChange", "value": "16000"},
{"uid": "me", "attr": "shadowMax", "value": "99999"},
{"uid": "me", "attr": "shadowWarning", "value": "7"}
# Login name and password of the LibreOffice OnLine web services administrator.
# Usefulness not clear; it doesnt hurt to use the same values as in “nextcloud_admin_user” and “nextcloud_admin_password”…
loolwsd_admin_user: nextcloud_admin
loolwsd_admin_password: nextcloud_admin
# LibreOffice OnLines description: “The maximum percentage of system memory consumed
# by all of the LibreOffice Online, after which we start cleaning up idle documents”.
loolwsd_maxmem_asdouble: '80.0'
# Non-system mail aliases (stored in LDAP, in contrast to system aliases, which are stored in /etc/mail/aliases).
# Each entry in the list contains:
# — alias: a unique mail alias, either new or with existing associated recipients;
# — member: the login name of the user to add as a recipient for the alias.
mail_alias_memberships: '[
{"alias": "shop", "member": "you"},
{"alias": "throwable", "member": "me"},
{"alias": "family", "member": "me"},
{"alias": "family", "member": "you"}
# DKIM selector to use (see http://yalis.fr/cms/index.php/post/2014/01/31/Why-buy-a-domain-name-Secure-mail%2E).
# See the “dmz_exim” role for the storage of the private and public keys.
mail_dkim_selector: home
# Actual Linux user, that receives all system emails (for root, postmaster, hostmaster…).
mail_forward_root_to: me
# IPv6 address of the ISPs smarthost when the ISP does not handle SMTP on IPv6 (example: smtp.bbox.fr).
mail_ignore_ip: '2001:860:e2ef::f503:0:2'
# All local mail destinations, which include managed domains, as well as host names.
mail_local_domains: 'home dmz localhost example.org *.example.org *.local'
# The ISPs smarthost (which listens on port 25).
mail_smtp_smarthost: smtp.bbox.fr
# The group name for media contents (see also “ldap_system_groups”).
media_group: media
# Custom Minidlna configuration, including the locations where it will look for media contents.
# None of the “media_dir” paths is currently allowed under /opt.
# Apart from “media_dir”, the settings already set upstream must not be overriden.
# See also “nfs_exports”, and https://sourceforge.net/p/minidlna/git/ci/master/tree/minidlna.conf (upstream).
media_minidlna_conf: |
# Name of the Movim database in PostgreSQL.
movim_db: movim
# PostgreSQL user who owns the Movim database.
movim_db_user: movim
# Password for the PostgreSQL user who owns the Movim database.
movim_db_password: movim
# Administrator for Movim.
movim_admin_user: movim_admin
# Password of the administrator for Movim.
movim_admin_password: movim_admin
# Localhost port on which Movim is listening
movim_private_port: 33333
# Domain names to which network access from the DMZ is allowed.
# This space-separated list should contain:
# — the web address for checking the current public IP given by the ISP;
# — the web address for updating the dynamic DNS;
# — the web address for updating web applications…
net_allowed_domains: 'checkip.dns.he.net dyn.dns.he.net freedns.afraid.org download.dotclear.org dotaddict.org api.movim.eu'
# Start Of Authority: the root domain name configured on the server.
net_soa: example.org
# Subdomain for the XMPP multi-user chat component.
net_subdom_muc: muc
# Subdomain for the XMPP pub-sub component.
net_subdom_pubsub: pubsub
# Subdomain for which TLS traffic (port 443) is analysed as SSH instead of HTTP.
net_subdom_ssh: ssh
# Local networks from which network connections are trusted.
# OpenSSH requires that the IP in front of the “/” character is the first IP of the range!
net_trusted_ranges: ' ::1'
# Administrator for Nextcloud (not necessarily an LDAP user).
nextcloud_admin_user: nextcloud_admin
# Password of the administrator for Nextcloud.
nextcloud_admin_password: nextcloud_admin
# Path to Nextclouds configuration.
nextcloud_conf: /etc/webapps/nextcloud/config
# Path to local Nextcloud data (not the users files).
nextcloud_data: /var/lib/nextcloud
# Name of the Nextcloud database in PostgreSQL.
nextcloud_db: nextcloud
# PostgreSQL user who owns the Nextcloud database.
nextcloud_db_user: nextcloud
# Password for the PostgreSQL user who owns the Nextcloud database.
nextcloud_db_password: nextcloud
# Path to Nextcloud distribution data (not the users files).
nextcloud_root: /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud
# System user that will run Nextcloud.
nextcloud_user: cloud
# Local paths (on the safe side of the server) that shall be exported with NFS.
# Each entry contains:
# — name: the name of the NFS export, under /srv/nfs;
# — path: the exported local path.
nfs_exports: '[
{"name": "share", "path": "/mnt/share"},
{"name": "share/video", "path": "/mnt/media/video"},
{"name": "share/my_CDs", "path": "/mnt/media/my_CDs"},
{"name": "share/my_MP3", "path": "/mnt/media/my_MP3"},
{"name": "share/photos", "path": "/mnt/media/photos"}
# NFS export options (https://linux.die.net/man/5/exports).
nfs_options: 'rw,no_subtree_check,no_root_squash,no_wdelay,crossmnt'
# Log level for nginx (http://nginx.org/en/docs/ngx_core_module.html#error_log).
nginx_loglevel: info
# Administrator password for PostgreSQL.
pgpassword: PostgreSQL
# Maximum number of bytes in a Privatebin paste (or image).
privatebin_bytes_limit: 10485760
# Enable discussions in Privatebin (“true” or “false” as a character string).
privatebin_enable_discussion: 'false'
# Enable passwords in Privatebin (“true” or “false” as a character string).
privatebin_enable_passwords: 'false'
# Enable uploads in Privatebin (“true” or “false” as a character string).
privatebin_enable_uploads: 'true'
# Open discussions by default in Privatebin (“true” or “false” as a character string).
privatebin_open_discussion: 'false'
# Delay in seconds before an opportunistic purge of old pastes is attempted while processing a request.
privatebin_purge_delay: 300
# Title for Privatebin in the SSOwat portal.
privatebin_sso_title: Privatebin
# Name of the Prosody database in PostgreSQL.
prosody_db: prosody
# PostgreSQL user who owns the Prosody database.
prosody_db_user: prosody
# Password for the PostgreSQL user who owns the Prosody database.
prosody_db_password: prosody
# Space-separated list of SANE drivers to keep enabled, for scanner sharing.
sane_drivers: epson2
# Space-separated list of pacman mirrors to use.
software_mirrors: 'archlinux.de-labrusse.fr mirror.archlinux.ikoula.com'
# Software that will get removed if present, on next run of the playbook (JSON list).
software_to_del: '["dhcpcd"]'
# Comma-separated list of software that pacman should not automatically upgrade.
software_to_ignore: 'linux,linux-firmware,linux-headers'
# Environment variables that SSH may keep for remote connections.
ssh_accept_env: 'LANG LC_*'
# Allow port-forwarding with SSH (“yes” or “no” as a character string).
ssh_allow_tcpforward: 'yes'